Instructions on Transformer for people outside NLP field, but with examples of NLP

I found it quite difficult to explain mathematical details of long short-term memory (LSTM) in my previous article series. But when I was studying LSTM, a new promising algorithm was already attracting attentions. The algorithm is named Transformer. Its algorithm was a first announced in a paper named “Attention Is All You Need,” and it outperformed conventional translation algorithms with lower computational costs.

In this article series, I am going to provide explanations on minimum prerequisites for understanding deep learning in NLP (natural language process) tasks, but NLP is not the main focus of this article series, and actually I do not study in NLP field. I think Transformer is going to be a new major model of deep learning as well as CNN or RNN, and the model is now being applied in various fields.

Even though Transformer is going to be a very general deep learning model, I still believe it would be an effective way to understand Transformer with some NLP because language is a good topic we have in common. Unlike my previous article series, in which I tried to explain theoretical side of RNN as precisely as possible, in this article I am going to focus on practical stuff with my toy implementations of NLP tasks, largely based on Tensorflow official tutorial. But still I will do my best to make it as straightforward as possible to understand the architecture of Transformer with various original figures.

This series is going to be composed of the articles below.

  • On the difficulty of language: prerequisites for NLP with Transformer (Coming soon)
  • Seq2seq model and attention mechanism: a backbone of NLP with deep learning (Coming soon)
  • Multi-head attention: the key component of Transformer (Coming soon)
  • The whole architecture of Transformer and with my toy English/German translator (Coming soon)
  • Transformer in image processing (Coming soon)

If you are in the field and can read the codes in the official tutorial with no questions, this article series is not for you, but if you want to see how a Transformer works but do not want to go too much into details of NLP, this article would be for you.

Select the Right career path between Software Developer and Data Scientist

In today’s digital day and age, a software development career is one of the most lucrative ones. Custom software developers abound, offering all sorts of services for business organizations anywhere in the world. Software developers of all kinds, vendors, full-time staff, contract workers, or part-time workers, all are important members of the Information Technology community. 

There are different career paths to choose from in the world of software development. Among the most promising ones include a software developer career and a data scientist career. What exactly are these?

Software developers are the brainstorming, creative masterminds behind all kinds of computer programs. Although there may be some that focus on a specific app or program, others build giant networks or underlying systems, which power and trigger other programs. That’s why there are two classifications of a software developer, the app software developer, and the developers of systems software.

On the other hand, data scientists are a new breed of experts in analytical data with the technical skills to resolve complex issues, as well as the curiosity to explore what problems require solving. Data scientists, in any custom software development service, are part trend-spotter, part mathematicians, and part computer scientists. And, since they bestraddle both IT and business worlds, they’re highly in-demand and of course well-paid. 

When it comes to the field of custom software development and software development in general, which career is the most promising? Let’s find out. 

Data Science and Software Development, the Differences

Although both are extremely technical, and while both have the same sets of skills, there are huge differences in how these skills are applied. Thus, to determine which career path to choose from, let’s compare and find the most critical differences. 

The Methodologies

Data Science Methodology

There are different places in which a person could come into the data science pipeline. If they are gathering data, then they probably are called a data engineer, and they would be pulling data from different resources, cleaning and processing it, and storing it in a database. Usually, this is referred to as the ETL process or the extract, transform, and load. 

If they use data to create models and perform analysis, probably they’re called a ‘data analyst’ or a ‘machine learning engineer’. The critical aspects of this part of the pipeline are making certain that any models made don’t violate the underlying assumptions, and that they are driving worthwhile insights. 

Methodology in Software Development 

In contrast, the development of software makes use of the SDLC methodology or the software development life cycle. The workflow or cycle is used in developing and maintaining software. The steps are planning, implementing, testing, documenting, deploying, and maintaining. 

Following one of the different SDLC models, in theory, could lead to software that runs at peak efficiency and would boost any future development. 

The Approaches

Data science is a very process-oriented field The practitioners consume and analyze sets of data to understand a problem better and come up with a solution. Software development is more of approaching tasks with existing methodologies and frameworks. For example, the Waterfall model is a popular method that maintains every software development life cycle phase that should be completed and reviewed before going to the next. 

Some frameworks used in development include the V-shaped model, Agile, and Spiral. Simply, there is no equal data science process, although a lot of data scientists are within one of the approaches as part of the bigger team. Pure developers of the software have a lot of roles to fill outside data science, from front-end development to DevOps and infrastructure roles. 

Moreover, although data analytics pays well, the roles of software developers of all kinds are still higher in demand. Thus, if machine learning isn’t your thing, then you could spend your spare time in developing expertise in your area of interest instead. 

The Tools

The wheelhouse of a data scientist has data analytics tools, machine learning, data visualization, working with databases, and predictive modeling. If you use plenty of data ingestion and storage they probably would use MongoDB, Amazon S3, PostgreSQL, or something the same. For building a model, there’s a great chance that they would be working with Scikit-learn or Statsmodels. 

Big data distributed processing needs Apache Spark. Software engineers use software to design and analyze tools, programming languages, software testing, web apps tools, and so on. With data science, many depend on what you’re attempting to accomplish. For actually creating TextWrangler, code Atom, Emacs, Visual Code Studio, and Vim are popular. 

Django by Python, Ruby on Rails, and Flask see plenty of use in the backend web development world. Vue.js emerged recently as one of the best ways of creating lightweight web apps, and similarly for AJAX when creating asynchronous-updating, creating dynamic web content. Everyone must know how to utilize a version control system like GitHub for instance. 

The Skills

To become a data scientist, some of the most important things to know include machine learning, programming, data visualization, statistics, and the willingness to learn. Various positions may need more than these skills, but it’s a safe bet to say that these are the bare minimum when you pursue a data science career. 

Often, the necessary skills to be a developer of the software will be a little more intangible. The ability of course to program and code in various programming languages is required, but you should also be able to work well in development teams, resolve an issue, adapt to various scenarios, and should be willing to learn. This again isn’t an exhaustive list of skills, but these certainly would serve you well if you are interested in this career. 

Conclusion

You should, at the end of the day must choose a career path that’s based on your strengths and interests. The salaries of data scientists and software developers  are the same to an average at least. However, before choosing which is better for you, consider experimenting with various projects and interact with different aspects of the business to determine where your skills and personality best fits in since that is where you’ll grow the most in the future.

How Healthcare Is Cracking Down on Data Privacy

The COVID-19 pandemic emerged more than a year ago, and come March, the United States will also pass the one-year anniversary of the novel coronavirus’ arrival in our nation. Hospitals have become overrun with patients, having to adjust for space even when they’re at full capacity. The colder months are bringing on more infections as well.

With such high demands on health care providers, technology has been an area of assistance through it all. Telehealth in particular allows patients to stay at home and receive care without putting themselves at risk. However, security and privacy concerns accompany this reliance on technology.

The digital world can be dangerous. Hacks and breaches can occur at any time. The novel coronavirus pandemic has accelerated these attacks. Through August 2020 alone, 305 healthcare data breaches occurred — which is up from 2019’s 136 breaches in the same time frame. These vulnerabilities cannot continue to occur, since health care facilities hold vital patient information like Social Security numbers, medical records and financial information.

The industry is resilient, though. Adapting to new norms and protocols is part of the healthcare field. With the new focus on technology to connect patients and providers through the ongoing pandemic, practices have been cracking down on keeping data safe and secure.

Health Care Industry Adapts

Data presents itself in the health care industry in several ways. Standard patient data includes personal information about health history, relationships and private matters. Other forms of data may include connections from medical devices that use the internet — something like a digital blood pressure monitor may transmit data. Then, providers must store and send this data at various times.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act sets forth two main regulations facilities must follow. The security rule mandates that the use of all electronic personal health data must be stable in any form or use. The privacy rule indicates that all medical records, insurance information and private data must have the best protection.

In 2017, 477 breaches affected about 5.6 million patient records, breaching what should have been secure HIPAA data. To uphold HIPAA regulations and prevent breaches like these from happening, health care providers have taken several steps.

First, education is crucial. Bringing all staff in on up-to-date privacy protocols will go a long way. For instance, using encryption on mobile devices, backing up all data, creating strong passwords and consistently patching and updating the systems and firewalls are critical for staff to understand.

Access is another form of protection. Multi-factor authentication, like passwords, keys, PINs and biometrics, will keep systems secure and only give access to those who need it the most. Then, facilities can monitor data at all times — unauthorized access, emails and transfers. If something suspicious happens, IT departments can see it in real time and flag it or stop it.

Last, consistent evaluations are more necessary than ever. Health care facilities will want to make sure they comply with industry and privacy requirements, and that staff members know the protocols to follow. Then, data privacy remains a top priority.

The Lasting Impact

Vaccines are slowly rolling out and becoming more available to residents across the world. However, even with a vaccine, global spread will slow gradually, especially in areas where cases are high and rising. For instance, the United States cases are still rising and breaking records daily.

Data will continue to be a central focus throughout the pandemic and afterward. Right now, specifically, with big tech companies facing scrutiny and investigations for privacy faults, data is at the forefront of Americans’ minds. Health care companies must excel in ways that big tech has not.

One sign of progress is new mental health startups popping up that focus on virtual dynamics. With services like Real Therapy or Two Chairs, you can make a virtual appointment. Since privacy is already an inherent part of therapy, data privacy will be critical to integrate into these business models.

Getting Ahead of the Curve

While the pandemic may seem uncontrollable at times, health care facilities have more agency. They can smooth relationships with patients and operate more efficiently with stricter data privacy protocols in place. In an uncertain time, ensuring data security is one of the best things health care providers can do.

Top 10 Python Libraries Of All Time

Python is a very popular and renowned language that has replaced several programming languages in the market. Its amazing collection of libraries makes it a convenient programming language for developers.

Python is an ocean of libraries serving an ample number of purposes and as a developer; you must possess sound knowledge of the 10 libraries. One needs to familiarize themselves with the libraries to go on and work on different projects. For the data scientist, it has been a charmer now.

Here today, for you this is a curated list of 10 Python libraries that can help you along with its significant features, when to use them, and also the benefits.

10 Best Python Libraries of All Times

  1. Pandas: Pandas is an open-source library that offers instant high performance, data analysis, and simple data structures. When can you use it? It can be used for data munging and wrangling. If one is looking for quick data visuals, aggregation, manipulation, and reading, then this library is suitable. You can impute the missing data files, plot the data, and make edits in the data column. Moreover, for renaming and merging, this tool can do wonders. It is a foundation library, and a data scientist should have in-depth knowledge about Pandas before any other library knowledge.
  1. TensorFlow: TensorFlow is developed by Google in collaboration with the Brain Team. Using this tool, you can instantly visualize any part of the graphical representation. It comes with modularity and offers high flexibility in its operations. This library is ideal for running and operating in large scale systems. So, as long as you have good internet connectivity, you can use it because it is an open-source platform. What is the beauty of this library? It comes with an unending list of applications associated with it.
  1. NumPy: NumPy is the most popular Python library used by developers. It is used by various libraries for conducting easy operations. What is the beauty of NumPy? Array Interface is the beauty of NumPy and it is always a highlighted feature. NumPy is interactive and very simple to use. It can instantly solve complicated mathematical problems. With this, you need not worry about daunting phases of coding and offering open-source contributions. This interface is widely used for expressing raw streams, sound waves, and other images. If you are looking to implement this into machine learning, you must possess in-depth knowledge about NumPy.
  1. Keras: Are you looking for a cool Python library? Well, Keras is the coolest machine learning python library. It runs smoothly on both CPU and GPU. Do you want to know where Keras is used? It is used in popular applications like Uber, Swiggy, Netflix, Square, and Yelp. Keras easily supports the fully connected, pooling, convolution, and recurrent neural networks. For any innovative research, it does fine because it is expressive and flexible. Keras is completely based on a framework, which enables easy debugging and exploring. Various large scientific organizations use Keras for innovative research.
  1. Scikit- Learn: If your project deals with complex data, it has to be the Scikit- Learn python library. This Python Machine Learning Library is associated with NumPy and SciPy. After various modifications, one such feather cross-validation is used for enabling more than one metric. It is used for extracting features and data from texts and images. It uses various algorithms to make changes in machine learning. What are its functions? It is used in model selection, classification, clustering, and regression. Various training methods like nearest neighbor and logistics regressions are subjected to minimal modification.
  1. PyTorch: PyTorch is the largest library which conducts various computations and accelerations. Also, it solves complicated application issues that are related to the neural networks. It is completely based on the machine language Torch, which is a free and open-source platform. PyTorch is new but gaining huge popularity and very much a favorite among the developers. Why such popularity? It comes with a hybrid end-user which ensures easy usage and flexibility. For processing natural language applications, this library is used. Do you know what the best part is? It is outperforming and taking the popularity of Tensor Flow in recent times.
  1. MoviePy: The MoviePy is a tool that offers unending functionality related to movies and visuals. It is used for exporting, modifying, and importing various video files. Do you want to add a title to your video or rotate it 90 degrees? Well, MoviePy helps you to do all such tasks related to videos. It is not a tool for manipulating data like Pillow. In any task related to movies and videos in python coding, you can no doubt rely on the functionality of MoviePy. It is designed to conduct all the aspects of a standard task and can get it done instantly. For any common task associated with videos, it has a MoviePy library.
  1. Matplotlib: Matplotlib is no doubt a quintessential python library whose presence can never be forgotten. You can visualize data and create innovative and interesting stories. When can you use it? You can use Matplotlib for embedding different plots into the application as it provides an object-oriented application program interface. Any sort of visualization, be it bar graph, histogram, pie chart, or graphs, Matplotlib can easily depict it. With this library, you can create any type of visualization. Do you want to know what visualizations you can create? You can create a histogram, Bar graph, pie chart, area plot, stem plot, and line plot. It also facilitates the legends, grids, and labels.
  2. Tkinter: Tkinter is a library that can help you create any Python application with the help of a graphical user interface. Tkinter is the most common and easy to use python library for developing apps with GUI. It binds python to the GUI tool kit which can be used in any modern operating system. To create a python GUI, Tkinter is the only best way to start instantly.
  3. Plotly: The Plotly is an essential graph plotting python library for developers. Users can import, copy, paste, export the data that needs to be analyzed and visualized. When can you use it? You can use Plotly to display and create figures and visual images. What is interesting is that it has amazing features for sending data to the various cloud servers.

What are the visual charts prepared with Plotly? You can create line pie, bubble, dot, scatter, and pie. One can also construct financial charts, contours, maps, subplots, carpet, radar, and logs. Do you have anything in your mind which needs to be represented visually? Use Plotly!

Finishing Up

In a nutshell, you have the best python libraries of recent times which contribute hugely to development. If your favorite python library didn’t make it in this list of the top 10 best python libraries, do not take offense.

Python comes with unending library packages, and these 10 are some of its popular and best-used ones. If you are a python developer, these are the best libraries you must have in-depth knowledge of.

Turbocharge Business Analytics With In-memory Computing

One of the customer traits that’s been gradually diminishing through the years is patience; if a customer-facing website or application doesn’t deliver real-time or near-instant results, it can be a reason for a customer to look elsewhere. This trend has pushed companies to turn to in-memory computing to get the speed needed to address customer demands in real-time. It simplifies access to multiple data sources to provide super-fast performance that’s thousands of times faster than disk-based storage systems. By storing data in RAM and processing in parallel against the full dataset, in-memory computing solutions allow for real-time insights that lead to informed business decisions and improved performance.

The in-memory computing solutions market has been on the rise in recent years because it has been heralded as the platform that will accelerate IT modernization. In-memory data grids, in particular, show great promise because it addresses the main limitation of an in-memory relational database. While the latter is designed to scale up, the former is designed to scale out. This scalability is one of the main draws of an in-memory data grid, since a scale-up architecture is not sustainable in the long term and will always have a breaking point. In-memory data grids on the other hand, benefit from horizontal scalability and computing elasticity. Scaling an in-memory data grid is as simple as adding nodes to a cluster and removing it when it’s no longer needed. This is especially useful for businesses that demand speed in the management of hundreds of terabytes of data across multiple networked computers in geographically distributed data centers.

Since big data is complex and fast-moving, keeping data synchronized across data centers is vital to preserve data integrity. Keeping data in memory removes the bottleneck caused by constant access to disk -based storage and allows applications and their data to collocate in the same memory space. This allows for optimization that allows the amount of data to exceed the amount of available memory. Speed and efficiency is also improved by keeping frequently accessed data in memory and the rest on disk, consequently allowing data to reside both in memory and on disk.

Future-proofing Businesses With In-memory Computing

Data analytics is as much a part of every business as other marketing and business intelligence tools. Because data constantly grows at an exponential rate, in-memory computing serves as the enabler of data analytics because it provides speed, high availability, and straightforward scalability. Speeds more than 100 times faster than other solutions enable in-memory computing solutions to provide real-time insights that are applicable in a host of industries and use cases.

Location-based Marketing

A report from 2019 shows that location-based marketing helped 89% of marketers increase sales, 86% grow their customer base, and 84% improve customer engagement. Location data can be leveraged to identify patterns of behavior by analyzing frequently visited locations. By understanding why certain customers frequent specific locations and knowing when they are there, you can better target your marketing messages and make more strategic customer acquisitions. Location data can also be used as a demographic identifier to help you segment your customers and tailor your offers and messaging accordingly.

Fraud Detection

In-memory computing helps improve operational intelligence by detecting anomalies in transaction data immediately. Through high-speed analysis of large amounts of data, potential risks are detected early on and addressed as soon as possible. Transaction data is fast-moving and changes frequently, and in-memory computing is equipped to handle data as it changes. This is why it’s an ideal platform for payment processing; it helps make comparisons of current transactions with the history of all transactions on record in a matter of seconds. Companies typically have several fraud detection measures in place, and in-memory computing allows running these algorithms concurrently without compromising overall system performance. This ensures responsiveness of systems despite peak volume levels and avoids interruptions to customer service.

Tailored Customer Experiences

The real-time insights delivered by in-memory computing helps personalize experiences based on customer data. Because customer experiences are time-sensitive, processing and analyzing data at super-fast speeds is vital in capturing real-time event data that can be used to craft the best experience possible for each customer. Without in-memory computing, getting real-time data and other necessary information that ensures a seamless customer experience would have been near impossible.

Real-time data analytics helps provide personalized recommendations based on both existing and new customer data. By looking at historical data like previously visited pages and comparing them with newer data from the stream, businesses can craft the proper messaging and plan the next course of action. The anticipation and forecasting of customers’ future actions and behavior is the key to improving conversion rates and customer satisfaction—ultimately leading to higher revenues and more loyal customers.

Conclusion

Big data is the future, and companies that don’t use it to their advantage would find it hard to compete in this ever-connected world that demands results in an instant. Processing and analyzing data can only become more complex and challenging through time, and for this reason, in-memory computing should be a solution that companies should consider. Aside from improving their business from within, it will also help drive customer acquisition and revenue, while also providing a viable low-latency, high throughput platform for high-speed data analytics.