How Important is Customer Lifetime Value?

This is the third article of article series Getting started with the top eCommerce use cases. If you are interested in reading the first article you can find it here.

Customer Lifetime Value

Many researches have shown that cost for acquiring a new customer is higher than the cost of retention of an existing customer which makes Customer Lifetime Value (CLV or LTV) one of the most important KPI’s. Marketing is about building a relationship with your customer and quality service matters a lot when it comes to customer retention. CLV is a metric which determines the total amount of money a customer is expected to spend in your business.

CLV allows marketing department of the company to understand how much money a customer is going  to spend over their  life cycle which helps them to determine on how much the company should spend to acquire each customer. Using CLV a company can better understand their customer and come up with different strategies either to retain their existing customers by sending them personalized email, discount voucher, provide them with better customer service etc. This will help a company to narrow their focus on acquiring similar customers by applying customer segmentation or look alike modeling.

One of the main focus of every company is Growth in this competitive eCommerce market today and price is not the only factor when a customer makes a decision. CLV is a metric which revolves around a customer and helps to retain valuable customers, increase revenue from less valuable customers and improve overall customer experience. Don’t look at CLV as just one metric but the journey to calculate this metric involves answering some really important questions which can be crucial for the business. Metrics and questions like:

  1. Number of sales
  2. Average number of times a customer buys
  3. Full Customer journey
  4. How many marketing channels were involved in one purchase?
  5. When the purchase was made?
  6. Customer retention rate
  7. Marketing cost
  8. Cost of acquiring a new customer

and so on are somehow associated with the calculation of CLV and exploring these questions can be quite insightful. Lately, a lot of companies have started to use this metric and shift their focuses in order to make more profit. Amazon is the perfect example for this, in 2013, a study by Consumers Intelligence Research Partners found out that prime members spends more than a non-prime member. So Amazon started focusing on Prime members to increase their profit over the past few years. The whole article can be found here.

How to calculate CLV?

There are several methods to calculate CLV and few of them are listed below.

Method 1: By calculating average revenue per customer

 

Figure 1: Using average revenue per customer

 

Let’s suppose three customers brought 745€ as profit to a company over a period of 2 months then:

CLV (2 months) = Total Profit over a period of time / Number of Customers over a period of time

CLV (2 months) = 745 / 3 = 248 €

Now the company can use this to calculate CLV for an year however, this is a naive approach and works only if the preferences of the customer are same for the same period of time. So let’s explore other approaches.

Method 2

This method requires to first calculate KPI’s like retention rate and discount rate.

 

CLV = Gross margin per lifespan ( Retention rate per month / 1 + Discount rate – Retention rate per month)

Where

Retention rate = Customer at the end of the month – Customer during the month / Customer at the beginning of the month ) * 100

Method 3

This method will allow us to look at other metrics also and can be calculated in following steps:

  1. Calculate average number of transactions per month (T)
  2. Calculate average order value (OV)
  3. Calculate average gross margin (GM)
  4. Calculate customer lifespan in months (ALS)

After calculating these metrics CLV can be calculated as:

 

CLV = T*OV*GM*ALS / No. of Clients for the period

where

Transactions (T) = Total transactions / Period

Average order value (OV) = Total revenue / Total orders

Gross margin (GM) = (Total revenue – Cost of sales/ Total revenue) * 100 [but how you calculate cost of sales is debatable]

Customer lifespan in months (ALS) = 1 / Churn Rate %

 

CLV can be calculated using any of the above mentioned methods depending upon how robust your company wants the analysis to be. Some companies are also using Machine learning models to predict CLV, maybe not directly but they use ML models to predict customer churn rate, retention rate and other marketing KPI’s. Some companies take advantage of all the methods by taking an average at the end.

Python vs R: Which Language to Choose for Deep Learning?

Data science is increasingly becoming essential for every business to operate efficiently in this modern world. This influences the processes composed together to obtain the required outputs for clients. While machine learning and deep learning sit at the core of data science, the concepts of deep learning become essential to understand as it can help increase the accuracy of final outputs. And when it comes to data science, R and Python are the most popular programming languages used to instruct the machines.

Python and R: Primary Languages Used for Deep Learning

Deep learning and machine learning differentiate based on the input data type they use. While machine learning depends upon the structured data, deep learning uses neural networks to store and process the data during the learning. Deep learning can be described as the subset of machine learning, where the data to be processed is defined in another structure than a normal one.

R is developed specifically to support the concepts and implementation of data science and hence, the support provided by this language is incredible as writing codes become much easier with its simple syntax.

Python is already much popular programming language that can serve more than one development niche without straining even for a bit. The implementation of Python for programming machine learning algorithms is very much popular and the results provided are accurate and faster than any other language. (C or Java). And because of its extended support for data science concept implementation, it becomes a tough competitor for R.

However, if we compare the charts of popularity, Python is obviously more popular among data scientists and developers because of its versatility and easier usage during algorithm implementation. However, R outruns Python when it comes to the packages offered to developers specifically expertise in R over Python. Therefore, to conclude which one of them is the best, let’s take an overview of the features and limits offered by both languages.

Python

Python was first introduced by Guido Van Rossum who developed it as the successor of ABC programming language. Python puts white space at the center while increasing the readability of the developed code. It is a general-purpose programming language that simply extends support for various development needs.

The packages of Python includes support for web development, software development, GUI (Graphical User Interface) development and machine learning also. Using these packages and putting the best development skills forward, excellent solutions can be developed. According to Stackoverflow, Python ranks at the fourth position as the most popular programming language among developers.

Benefits for performing enhanced deep learning using Python are:

  • Concise and Readable Code
  • Extended Support from Large Community of Developers
  • Open-source Programming Language
  • Encourages Collaborative Coding
  • Suitable for small and large-scale products

The latest and stable version of Python has been released as Python 3.8.0 on 14th October 2019. Developing a software solution using Python becomes much easier as the extended support offered through the packages drives better development and answers every need.

R

R is a language specifically used for the development of statistical software and for statistical data analysis. The primary user base of R contains statisticians and data scientists who are analyzing data. Supported by R Foundation for statistical computing, this language is not suitable for the development of websites or applications. R is also an open-source environment that can be used for mining excessive and large amounts of data.

R programming language focuses on the output generation but not the speed. The execution speed of programs written in R is comparatively lesser as producing required outputs is the aim not the speed of the process. To use R in any development or mining tasks, it is required to install its operating system specific binary version before coding to run the program directly into the command line.

R also has its own development environment designed and named RStudio. R also involves several libraries that help in crafting efficient programs to execute mining tasks on the provided data.

The benefits offered by R are pretty common and similar to what Python has to offer:

  • Open-source programming language
  • Supports all operating systems
  • Supports extensions
  • R can be integrated with many of the languages
  • Extended Support for Visual Data Mining

Although R ranks at the 17th position in Stackoverflow’s most popular programming language list, the support offered by this language has no match. After all, the R language is developed by statisticians for statisticians!

Python vs R: Should They be Really Compared?

Even when provided with the best technical support and efficient tools, a developer will not be able to provide quality outputs if he/she doesn’t possess the required skills. The point here is, technical skills rank higher than the resources provided. A comparison of these two programming languages is not advisable as they both hold their own set of advantages. However, the developers considering to use both together are less but they obtain maximum benefit from the process.

Both these languages have some features in common. For example, if a representative comes asking you if you lend technical support for developing an uber clone, you are directly going to decline as Python and R both do not support mobile app development. To benefit the most and develop excellent solutions using both these programming languages, it is advisable to stop comparing and start collaborating!

R and Python: How to Fit Both In a Single Program

Anticipating the future needs of the development industry, there has been a significant development to combine these both excellent programming languages into one. Now, there are two approaches to performing this: either we include R script into Python code or vice versa.

Using the available interfaces, packages and extended support from Python we can include R script into the code and enhance the productivity of Python code. Availability of PypeR, pyRserve and more resources helps run these two programming languages efficiently while efficiently performing the background work.

Either way, using the developed functions and packages made available for integrating Python in R are also effective at providing better results. Available R packages like rJython, rPython, reticulate, PythonInR and more, integrating Python into R language is very easy.

Therefore, using the development skills at their best and maximizing the use of such amazing resources, Python and R can be togetherly used to enhance end results and provide accurate deep learning support.

Conclusion

Python and R both are great in their own names and own places. However, because of the wide applications of Python in almost every operation, the annual packages offered to Python developers are less than the developers skilled in using R. However, this doesn’t justify the usability of R. The ultimate decision of choosing between these two languages depends upon the data scientists or developers and their mining requirements.

And if a developer or data scientist decides to develop skills for both- Python and R-based development, it turns out to be beneficial in the near future. Choosing any one or both to use in your project depends on the project requirements and expert support on hand.

Multi-touch attribution: A data-driven approach

Customers shopping behavior has changed drastically when it comes to online shopping, as nowadays, customer likes to do a thorough market research about a product before making a purchase.

What is Multi-touch attribution?

This makes it really hard for marketers to correctly determine the contribution for each marketing channel to which a customer was exposed to. The path a customer takes from his first search to the purchase is known as a Customer Journey and this path consists of multiple marketing channels or touchpoints. Therefore, it is highly important to distribute the budget between these channels to maximize return. This problem is known as multi-touch attribution problem and the right attribution model helps to steer the marketing budget efficiently. Multi-touch attribution problem is well known among marketers. You might be thinking that if this is a well known problem then there must be an algorithm out there to deal with this. Well, there are some traditional models  but every model has its own limitation which will be discussed in the next section.

Types of attribution models

Most of the eCommerce companies have a performance marketing department to make sure that the marketing budget is spent in an agile way. There are multiple heuristics attribution models pre-existing in google analytics however there are several issues with each one of them. These models are:

Traditional attribution models

First touch attribution model

100% credit is given to the first channel as it is considered that the first marketing channel was responsible for the purchase.

Figure 1: First touch attribution model

Last touch attribution model

100% credit is given to the last channel as it is considered that the first marketing channel was responsible for the purchase.

Figure 2: Last touch attribution model

Linear-touch attribution model

In this attribution model, equal credit is given to all the marketing channels present in customer journey as it is considered that each channel is equally responsible for the purchase.

Figure 3: Linear attribution model

U-shaped or Bath tub attribution model

This is most common in eCommerce companies, this model assigns 40% to first and last touch and 20% is equally distributed among the rest.

Figure 4: Bathtub or U-shape attribution model

Data driven attribution models

Traditional attribution models follows somewhat a naive approach to assign credit to one or all the marketing channels involved. As it is not so easy for all the companies to take one of these models and implement it. There are a lot of challenges that comes with multi-touch attribution problem like customer journey duration, overestimation of branded channels, vouchers and cross-platform issue, etc.

Switching from traditional models to data-driven models gives us more flexibility and more insights as the major part here is defining some rules to prepare the data that fits your business. These rules can be defined by performing an ad hoc analysis of customer journeys. In the next section, I will discuss about Markov chain concept as an attribution model.

Markov chains

Markov chains concepts revolves around probability. For attribution problem, every customer journey can be seen as a chain(set of marketing channels) which will compute a markov graph as illustrated in figure 5. Every channel here is represented as a vertex and the edges represent the probability of hopping from one channel to another. There will be an another detailed article, explaining the concept behind different data-driven attribution models and how to apply them.

Figure 5: Markov chain example

Challenges during the Implementation

Transitioning from a traditional attribution models to a data-driven one, may sound exciting but the implementation is rather challenging as there are several issues which can not be resolved just by changing the type of model. Before its implementation, the marketers should perform a customer journey analysis to gain some insights about their customers and try to find out/perform:

  1. Length of customer journey.
  2. On an average how many branded and non branded channels (distinct and non-distinct) in a typical customer journey?
  3. Identify most upper funnel and lower funnel channels.
  4. Voucher analysis: within branded and non-branded channels.

When you are done with the analysis and able to answer all of the above questions, the next step would be to define some rules in order to handle the user data according to your business needs. Some of the issues during the implementation are discussed below along with their solution.

Customer journey duration

Assuming that you are a retailer, let’s try to understand this issue with an example. In May 2016, your company started a Fb advertising campaign for a particular product category which “attracted” a lot of customers including Chris. He saw your Fb ad while working in the office and clicked on it, which took him to your website. As soon as he registered on your website, his boss called him (probably because he was on Fb while working), he closed everything and went for the meeting. After coming back, he started working and completely forgot about your ad or products. After a few days, he received an email with some offers of your products which also he ignored until he saw an ad again on TV in Jan 2019 (after 3 years). At this moment, he started doing his research about your products and finally bought one of your products from some Instagram campaign. It took Chris almost 3 years to make his first purchase.

Figure 6: Chris journey

Now, take a minute and think, if you analyse the entire journey of customers like Chris, you would realize that you are still assigning some of the credit to the touchpoints that happened 3 years ago. This can be solved by using an attribution window. Figure 6 illustrates that 83% of the customers are making a purchase within 30 days which means the attribution window here could be 30 days. In simple words, it is safe to remove the touchpoints that happens after 30 days of purchase. This parameter can also be changed to 45 days or 60 days, depending on the use case.

Figure 7: Length of customer journey

Removal of direct marketing channel

A well known issue that every marketing analyst is aware of is, customers who are already aware of the brand usually comes to the website directly. This leads to overestimation of direct channel and branded channels start getting more credit. In this case, you can set a threshold (say 7 days) and remove these branded channels from customer journey.

Figure 8: Removal of branded channels

Cross platform problem

If some of your customers are using different devices to explore your products and you are not able to track them then it will make retargeting really difficult. In a perfect world these customers belong to same journey and if these can’t be combined then, except one, other paths would be considered as “non-converting path”. For attribution problem device could be thought of as a touchpoint to include in the path but to be able to track these customers across all devices would still be challenging. A brief introduction to deterministic and probabilistic ways of cross device tracking can be found here.

Figure 9: Cross platform clash

How to account for Vouchers?

To better account for vouchers, it can be added as a ‘dummy’ touchpoint of the type of voucher (CRM,Social media, Affiliate or Pricing etc.) used. In our case, we tried to add these vouchers as first touchpoint and also as a last touchpoint but no significant difference was found. Also, if the marketing channel of which the voucher was used was already in the path, the dummy touchpoint was not added.

Figure 10: Addition of Voucher as a touchpoint

Seeing the Big Picture: Combining Enterprise Architecture with Process Management

Ever tried watching a 3D movie without those cool glasses people like to take home? Two hours of blurred flashing images is no-one’s idea of fun. But with the right equipment, you get an immersive experience, with realistic, clear, and focused images popping out of the screen. In the same way, the right enterprise architecture brings the complex structure of an organization into focus.

We know that IT environments in today’s modern businesses consist of a growing number of highly complex, interconnected, and often difficult-to-manage IT systems. Balancing customer service and efficiency imperatives associated with social, mobile, cloud, and big data technologies, along with effective day-to-day IT functions and support, can often feel like an insurmountable challenge.

Enterprise architecture can help organizations achieve this balance, all while managing risk, optimizing costs, and implementing innovations. Its main aim is to support reform and transformation programs. To do this, enterprise architecture relies on the accuracy of an enterprise’s complex data systems, and takes into account changing standards, regulations, and strategic business demands.

Components of effective enterprise architecture

In general, most widely accepted enterprise architecture frameworks consist of four interdependent domains:

  • Business Architecture

A blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization, and used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands. An example would be representing business processes using business process management notation.

  • Data Architecture

The domain that shows the dependencies and connections between an organization’s data, rules, models, and standards.

  • Applications Architecture

The layer that shows a company’s complete set of software solutions and their relationships with each other.

  • Infrastructure Architecture

Positioned at the lowest level, this component shows the relationships and connections of an organization’s existing hardware solutions.

Effective EA implementation means employees within a business can build a clear understanding of the way their company’s IT systems execute their specific work processes, as well as how they interact and relate to each other. It allows users to identify and analyze application and business performance, with the goal of enabling underperforming IT systems to be promptly and efficiently managed.

In short, EA helps businesses answer questions like:

  • Which IT systems are in use, and where, and by whom?
  • Which business processes relate to which IT systems?
  • Who is responsible for which IT systems?
  • How well are privacy protection requirements upheld?
  • Which server is each application run on?

The same questions, shifted slightly to refer to business processes rather than IT systems, are what drive enterprise-level business process management as well. Is it any wonder the two disciplines go together like popcorn and a good movie?

Combining enterprise architecture with process management

Successful business/IT alignment involves effectively leveraging an organization’s IT to achieve company goals and requirements. Standardized language and images (like flow charts and graphs) are often helpful in fostering mutual understanding between highly technical IT services and the business side of an organization.

In the same way, combining EA with collaborative business process management establishes a common language throughout a company. Once this common ground is established, misunderstandings can be avoided, and the business then has the freedom to pursue organizational or technical transformation goals effectively.

At this point, strengthened links between management, IT specialists, and a process-aware workforce mean more informed decisions become the norm. A successful pairing of process management, enterprise architecture, and IT gives insight into how changes in any one area impact the others, ultimately resulting in a clearer understanding of how the organization actually functions. This translates into an easier path to optimized business processes, and therefore a corresponding improvement in customer satisfaction.

Effective enterprise architecture provides greater transparency inside IT teams, and allows for efficient management of IT systems and their respective interfaces. Along with planning continual IT landscape development, EA supports strategic development of an organization’s structure, just as process management does.

Combining the two leads to a quantum leap in the efficiency and effectiveness of IT systems and business processes, and locks them into a mutually-reinforcing cycle of optimization, meaning improvements will continue over time. Both user communities can contribute to creating a better understanding using a common tool, and the synergy created from joining EA and business process management adds immediate value by driving positive changes company-wide.

Want to find out more? Put on your 3D glasses, and test your EA initiatives with Signavio! Sign up for your free 30-day trial of the Signavio Business Transformation Suite today.

How Can AI Redefine Security Measures In Future Smart Cities 

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The smart cities of the future will thrive on radical advances in technology like AI to ensure security architecture and civil governance. Whenever we think about a ‘smart city’, we visualize flying cars, data connectivity, robots, and digital management as the major drivers of convenience. All of these facilities incline towards facilitating a comfortable lifestyle. But, what about security? Have you ever noticed that cinema depicting older civilizations like Troy, the fall of a city discusses wars and other threats to the masses? Today, we live in a much safer era for humanity and contemporary movies also reflect these improved situations. The smart cities will further increase the security of its citizens by using modern AI-enabled security measures. Currently, half of the world’s population lives in urban areas and will grow with another 2.5 billion people by 2050. (McKinsey

Problems with the Current Infrastructure in Cities: Dire Threats to Human Life and Well Being

Today, we are facing a shortage of security mechanisms as the relatively small police forces can’t tackle threats in densely populated areas. Using surveillance cameras or metal detectors results in vague efforts leading to compromises with citizens’ safety. We can’t monitor every corner through just human controllers. In tourism-driven cities, threats like terrorism, organized crime, sexual offenses against women and children along with cyber threats also prove fatal for the economy. The overpopulated and geographically small areas makes it difficult to take any proactive measures to predict or even do damage control in such situations. The infrastructure cannot rely solely on human mediators. The capacity to monitor data, analyze threatful developments, and identify triggers of unwanted events limits human staff. Moreover; epidemics, natural calamities, and rioting too need instant attention across the globe. The shortage of resources and utilization rates are two major setbacks for administrations. 

Dive in deeper to learn how advanced AI-powered systems will address these problems to ensure a safe, dependable, and proactive environment for tomorrow’s generation.

Transportation Management

It is the most important aspect of any AI-powered security system in a smart city. AI algorithms shall use the traffic movement to divert the routes of vehicles and reduce traffic-related problems. It also uses the history of accident-prone zones to alert the drivers. The spacing between two cars can be successfully controlled by using their GPS coordinates to reduce the chances of accidents. Roads, being a national asset, their improved utilization will benefit the economy. AI solutions can also recognize abnormal driving through movement on road to trace driving under alcohol consumption and mental breakdowns. Traffic jams, accidents caused due to faulty roads, clearing areas for official purposes, and tracking criminals fleeing through roadways are also done automatically.

Video Processing and Crowd Surveillance

Software finds the indicators of a probable anti-social activity by processing the video footage of the public places. Human beings can prove to be inefficient to monitor crowded areas continuously. Artificial intelligence video analytics can segregate and identify potential threats on a real-time basis. Deep learning also enables the detection of escalating violence by analyzing the body language of mobs and for organized crime. Dispatching task squads immediately at incidences like pointing guns, knives, and mob fights turn easier. The cameras and voice sensors placed all around the town connect to a centralized monitoring network using 5G connectivity for low latencies. I think we can expect increased response rates along with better up crime registration.

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IoT-based Threat Detection Network 

The deployment of various sensors, actuators, and AI-enabled patrol robots improves security by leaps and bounds. They find the weapons and explosives by using the geometrical features and chemical reactivity in proximity to particular substances. Artificial intelligence also empowers the patrol robots to approach these instances for direct engagement with threatful persons. AI bots can also help dispose of IEDs with remote support. IoT devices act as an autonomous layer of movable safety mechanisms in the entire city. You can expect them independently neutralizing the criminals as per the situation. Clubbing them with anti-insurgent forces to contain the collateral damage to human life is immensely beneficial for us.

Cyber Analytics and Big Data Utilization

The above-mentioned network of devices and sensors will generate gigantic data. This will demand continuous analysis with the help of new Big Data Analytics tools along with AI for streamlined monitoring. Adding to it, the cyber crimes will also pose a serious threat since this information will be vulnerable to a cluster of stakeholders’ devices and networks. Smart cities are particularly endangered by malware attacks and exposing government machinery will lead to an infrastructural collapse. AI bridges the gap between BDA tools and the use of data science through machine learning. It can also build virtual models through the user, application, network, and repository data for predictive measures.

Interfacing Utilities, Social Media, and Security

We know that social media has played a pivotal role in tracking down suspicious activities. Proper mediation through the partnership between public social media networks, enterprise solutions like accounting solutions and payroll software for curbing money laundering are inevitable. This also addresses the concerns raised over our privacy. Sensitive information transmitting networks for industries like defense equipment and nuclear fuel shall are also brought under administrative surveillance. I think that the security of the city will also require interfacing utilities as their failure can cause backlashes on both the economic front along with law and order.

Insights

Open Government Partnership (OGP) is a multilateral program that also promotes AI for better governance in member nations.

Epidemic and Natural Calamity Control

The epidemics like swine flu, ebola virus, and measles have attracted the attention of the global community. AI-based healthcare systems can help in identifying and controlling the spread of these epidemics. In the case of a natural calamity, the AI patrol robots can speed up the process of finding the survivors and evacuating the areas rapidly. Decisions regarding the damage control measures improve with the use of cognitive technologies. They connect with all devices in the city to help the state machinery. Human mediators can’t channelize task forces in densely crowded localities without the support of AI systems.

Tracking High-Intensity Targets

Once a terror suspect infiltrates in the city territory or a fugitive is on the run, the AI face recognition systems can help hunt them down. Finding criminals based on dubious activities, their vehicles, and usage of communication tools like social media, messaging platforms, cellular networks, and the internet becomes efficient. Keeping an eye on the suspects and history sheeters on multiple levels is a major benefit of employing AI for constant monitoring. Tracing high-intensity targets by manhunts is inefficient on a large scale due to the scale of the personnel deployed for encompassing the entire periphery. It also alerts the criminals. AI-enabled tracing systems covertly perform the same process. 

Conclusion

The use of AI solutions as a part of state administration is a trending move made by the governments globally. Recently, the Indian government announced the National Centre for Artificial Intelligence as a part of its roadmap. Yet I feel that the potential for using AI is yet to be explored in entirety. The addition of new datasets and automation-based machine learning in these systems will open doors to more resilient functionalities. The future of our smart cities will be redefined by smart AI applications and we will embark on newer horizons of intelligent civil safety infrastructure.

AI For Advertisers: How Data Analytics Can Change The Maths Of Advertising?

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The task of understanding a customer’s journey and designing your marketing strategy accordingly can be difficult in this data-driven world. Today, the customer expresses their needs in myriad forms of requests.

Consumers express their needs and want attitudes, and values in various forms through search, comments, blogs, Tweets, “likes,” videos, and conversations and access such data across many channels like web, mobile, and face to face. Volume, variety, velocity and veracity of the data accumulated through these customer interactions are huge.

BigData and data analytics can be leveraged to understand several phases of the customer journey. There are risks involved in using Artificial Intelligence for the marketing data analysis of data breach and even manipulation. But, AI do have brighter prospects when it comes to marketing and advertiser applications.

As the CEO of a technology firm Chop Dawg and marketer, Joshua Davidson puts it, “AI-powered apps are going to be the future for us, and there are several industries that are ripe for this.” The mobile-first strategy of many enterprises has powered the use of AI for digital marketing and developing technologies and innovations to power industries with intelligent systems.

How AI and Machine learning are affecting customer journeys?

Any consumer journey begins with the recognition of a problem and then stages like initial consideration, active evaluation, purchase, and postpurchase come through up till the consumer journey is over. The need for identifying the purchasing and need patterns of the consumers and finding the buyer personas to strategize the marketing for them.

Need and Want Recognition:

Identifying a need is quite difficult as it is the most initial level of a consumer’s journey and it is more on the category level than at a brand level. Marketers and advertisers are relying on techniques like market research, web analytics, and data mining to build consumer profiles and buyer’s persona for understanding the needs and influencing the purchase of products. AI can help identify these wants and needs in real-time as the consumers usually express their needs and wants online and help build profiles more quickly.

AI technologies offered by several firms help in consumer profiling. Firms like Microsoft offers Azure that crunches billions of data points in seconds to determine the needs of consumers. It then personalizes web content on specific platforms in real-time to align with those status-updates. Consumer digital footprints are evolving through social media status updates, purchasing behavior, online comments and posts. Ai tends to update these profiles continuously through machine learning techniques.

Initial Consideration:

A key objective of advertising is to insert a brand into the consideration set of the consumers when they are looking for deliberate offerings. Advertising includes increasing the visibility of brands and emphasize on the key reasons for consideration. Advertisers currently use search optimization, paid search advertisements, organic search, or advertisement retargeting for finding the consideration and increase the probability of consumer consideration.

AI can leverage machine learning and data analytics to help with search, identify and rank functions of consumer consideration that can match the real-time considerations at any specific time. Take an example of Google Adwords, it analyzes the consumer data and helps advertisers make clearer distinctions between qualified and unqualified leads for better targeting.

Google uses AI to analyze the search-query data by considering, not only the keywords but also context words and phrases, consumer activity data and other BigData. Then, Google identifies valuable subsets of consumers and more accurate targeting.

Active Evaluation: 

When consumers narrow it down to a few choices of brands, advertisers need to insert trust and value among the consumers for brands. A common technique is to identify the higher purchase consumers and persuade them through persuasive content and advertisement. AI can support these tasks using some techniques:

Predictive Lead Scoring: Predictive lead scoring by leveraging machine learning techniques of predictive analytics to allow marketers to make accurate predictions related to the intent of purchase for consumers. A machine learning algorithm runs through a database of existing consumer data, then recognize trends and patterns and after processing the external data on consumer activities and interests, creates robust consumer profiles for advertisers.

Natural Language Generation: By leveraging the image, speech recognition and natural language generation, machine learning enables marketers to curate content while learning from the consumer behavior in real-time scenarios and adjusts the content according to the profiles on the fly.

Emotion AI: Marketers use emotion AI to understand consumer sentiment and feel about the brand in general. By tapping into the reviews, blogs or videos they understand the mood of customers. Marketers also use emotion AI to pretest advertisements before its release. The famous example of Kelloggs, which used emotion AI to help devise an advertising campaign for their cereal, eliminating the advertisement executions whenever the consumer engagement dropped.

Purchase: 

As the consumers decide which brands to choose and what it’s worth, advertising aims to move them out of the decision process and push for the purchase by reinforcing the value of the brand compared with its competition.

Advertisers can insert such value by emphasizing convenience and information about where to buy the product, how to buy the product and reassuring the value through warranties and guarantees. Many marketers also emphasize on rapid return policies and purchase incentives.

AI can completely change the purchase process through dynamic pricing, which encompasses real-time price adjustments on the basis of information such as demand and other consumer-behavior variables, seasonality, and competitor activities.

Post-Purchase: 

Aftersales services can be improved through intelligent systems using AI technologies and machine learning techniques. Marketers and advertisers can hire dedicated developers to design intelligent virtual agents or chatbots that can reinforce the value and performance of a brand among consumers.

Marketers can leverage an intelligent technique known as Propensity modeling to identify the most valuable customers on the basis of lifetime value, likelihood of reengagement, propensity to churn, and other key performance measures of interest. Then advertisers can personalize their communication with these customers on the basis of these data.

Conclusion:

AI has shifted the focus of advertisers and marketers towards the customer-first strategies and enhanced the heuristics of customer engagement. Machine learning and IoT(Internet of Things) has already changed the way customer interact with the brands and this transition has come at a time when advertisers and marketers are looking for new ways to tap into the customer mindset and buyer’s persona.

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The importance of being Data Scientist

Header-Image by Clint Adair on Unsplash.

The incredible results of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning in particular, could give the impression that Data Scientist are like magician. Just think of it. Recognising faces of people, translating from one language to another, diagnosing diseases from images, computing which product should be shown for us next to buy and so on from numbers only. Numbers which existed for centuries. What a perfect illusion. But it is only an illusion, as Data Scientist existed as well for centuries. However, there is a difference between the one from today compared to the one from the past: evolution.

The main activity of Data Scientist is to work with information also called data. Records of data are as old as mankind, but only within the 16 century did it include also numeric forms — as numbers started to gain more and more ground developing their own symbols. Numerical data, from a given phenomenon — being an experiment or the counts of sheep sold by week over the year –, was from early on saved in tabular form. Such a way to record data is interlinked with the supposition that information can be extracted from it, that knowledge — in form of functions — is hidden and awaits to be discovered. Collecting data and determining the function best fitting them let scientist to new insight into the law of nature right away: Galileo’s velocity law, Kepler’s planetary law, Newton theory of gravity etc.

Such incredible results where not possible without the data. In the past, one was able to collect data only as a scientist, an academic. In many instances, one needed to perform the experiment by himself. Gathering data was tiresome and very time consuming. No sensor which automatically measures the temperature or humidity, no computer on which all the data are written with the corresponding time stamp and are immediately available to be analysed. No, everything was performed manually: from the collection of the data to the tiresome computation.

More then that. Just think of Michael Faraday and Hermann Hertz and there experiments. Such endeavour where what we will call today an one-man-show. Both of them developed parts of the needed physics and tools, detailed the needed experiment settings, conducting the experiment and collect the data and, finally, computing the results. The same is true for many other experiments of their time. In biology Charles Darwin makes its case regarding evolution from the data collected in his expeditions on board of the Beagle over a period of 5 years, or Gregor Mendel which carry out a study of pea regarding the inherence of traits. In physics Blaise Pascal used the barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure or in chemistry Antoine Lavoisier discovers from many reaction in closed container that the total mass does not change over time. In that age, one person was enough to perform everything and was the reason why the last part, of a data scientist, could not be thought of without the rest. It was inseparable from the rest of the phenomenon.

With the advance of technology, theory and experimental tools was a specialisation gradually inescapable. As the experiments grow more and more complex, the background and condition in which the experiments were performed grow more and more complex. Newton managed to make first observation on light with a simple prism, but observing the line and bands from the light of the sun more than a century and half later by Joseph von Fraunhofer was a different matter. The small improvements over the centuries culminated in experiments like CERN or the Human Genome Project which would be impossible to be carried out by one person alone. Not only was it necessary to assign a different person with special skills for a separate task or subtask, but entire teams. CERN employs today around 17 500 people. Only in such a line of specialisation can one concentrate only on one task alone. Thus, some will have just the knowledge about the theory, some just of the tools of the experiment, other just how to collect the data and, again, some other just how to analyse best the recorded data.

If there is a specialisation regarding every part of the experiment, what makes Data Scientist so special? It is impossible to validate a theory, deciding which market strategy is best without the work of the Data Scientist. It is the reason why one starts today recording data in the first place. Not only the size of the experiment has grown in the past centuries, but also the size of the data. Gauss manage to determine the orbit of Ceres with less than 20 measurements, whereas the new picture about the black hole took 5 petabytes of recorded data. To put this in perspective, 1.5 petabytes corresponds to 33 billion photos or 66.5 years of HD-TV videos. If one includes also the time to eat and sleep, than 5 petabytes would be enough for a life time.

For Faraday and Hertz, and all the other scientist of their time, the goal was to find some relationship in the scarce data they painstakingly recorded. Due to time limitations, no special skills could be developed regarding only the part of analysing data. Not only are Data Scientist better equipped as the scientist of the past in analysing data, but they managed to develop new methods like Deep Learning, which have no mathematical foundation yet in spate of their success. Data Scientist developed over the centuries to the seldom branch of science which bring together what the scientific specialisation was forced to split.

What was impossible to conceive in the 19 century, became more and more a reality at the end of the 20 century and developed to a stand alone discipline at the beginning of the 21 century. Such a development is not only natural, but also the ground for the development of A.I. in general. The mathematical tools needed for such an endeavour where already developed by the half of the 20 century in the period when computing power was scars. Although the mathematical methods were present for everyone, to understand them and learn how to apply them developed quite differently within every individual field in which Machine Learning/A.I. was applied. The way the same method would be applied by a physicist, a chemist, a biologist or an economist would differ so radical, that different words emerged which lead to different langues for similar algorithms. Even today, when Data Science has became a independent branch, two different Data Scientists from different application background could find it difficult to understand each other only from a language point of view. The moment they look at the methods and code the differences will slowly melt away.

Finding a universal language for Data Science is one of the next important steps in the development of A.I. Then it would be possible for a Data Scientist to successfully finish a project in industry, turn to a new one in physics, then biology and returning to industry without much need to learn special new languages in order to be able to perform each tasks. It would be possible to concentrate on that what a Data Scientist does best: find the best algorithm. In other words, a Data Scientist could resolve problems independent of the background the problem was stated.

This is the most important aspect that distinguish the Data Scientist. A mathematician is limited to solve problems in mathematics alone, a physicist is able to solve problems only in physics, a biologist problems only in biology. With a unique language regarding the methods and strategies to solve Machine Learning/A.I. problems, a Data Scientist can solve a problem independent of the field. Specialisation put different branches of science at drift from each other, but it is the evolution of the role of the Data Scientist to synthesize from all of them and find the quintessence in a language which transpire beyond all the field of science. The emerging language of Data Science is a new building block, a new mathematical language of nature.

Although such a perspective does not yet exists, the principal component of Machine Learning/A.I. already have such proprieties partially in form of data. Because predicting for example the numbers of eggs sold by a company or the numbers of patients which developed immune bacteria to a specific antibiotic in all hospital in a country can be performed by the same prediction method. The data do not carry any information about the entities which are being predicted. It does not matter anymore if the data are from Faraday’s experiment, CERN of Human Genome. The same data set and its corresponding prediction could stand literary for anything. Thus, the result of the prediction — what we would call for a human being intuition and/or estimation — would be independent of the domain, the area of knowledge it originated.

It also lies at the very heart of A.I., the dream of researcher to create self acting entities, that is machines with consciousness. This implies that the algorithms must be able to determine which task, model is relevant at a given moment. It would be to cumbersome to have a model for every task and and every field and then try to connect them all in one. The independence of scientific language, like of data, is thus a mandatory step. It also means that developing A.I. is not only connected to develop a new consciousness, but, and most important, to the development of our one.

Why Retailers Are Making the Push for Stronger Data Science and AI

Retail relies on what the customer wants and needs at that moment, no matter the size of the company. Making judgments without consumer input would probably work for a little while but will fall flat as soon as the business model becomes outdated. In today’s technology-run world, things can become obsolete in a matter of days or even hours.

Retailers are the businesses most in need of capitalizing on what the customer wants in real-time. They have started to use data science and information from the Internet of Things (IoT) to not only stay in business, but also get ahead of other brands.

Artificial intelligence (AI) adds a new layer by using modern technology. The details of why retailers want to use these new practices are a bit more specific, though.

Data Targets Audiences

By using current customer data compared to information from the IoT, retailers can learn more about their audience and find better means of targeting them. Demographics like age, location and many other factors could affect advertising and even shopping, not to mention holidays throughout the year an audience celebrates.

Websites also need to be customized to suit the target audience. Those that are mobile-friendly and focused on what shoppers want can increase revenue, but the wrong approach can drive away new and existing customers. AI can help companies understand that data and present it back to the customer seamlessly, providing different options for various audiences.

Customer Base Expansion

Customer success should mean business success, as well. Growing a client base is something data science can assist with. However, helping customers grow is another type of service few companies provide but all people appreciate. A business can expand by offering new products and services that are relevant to their audience through the use of data.

Once a company learns what current customers want and begin to fit their needs, it can expand to more audiences. With data science, a business can ensure it does so slowly to give more of what current customers want while also finding new ones. The data can tell what sort of interests they all share so companies can capitalize on the venture.

AI Helps Customer Service

AI helps out customer service on both ends. Employees don’t have to focus on common problems that could easily be resolved, and clients often walk away happier than if they were to speak to a real person. This doesn’t work for every problem, especially ones that are specific in nature, but they can assist with more common issues. This is where chatbots enter the stage.

An AI-supported chatbot can give immediate support, provide suggestions, answer direct questions and offer almost any other form of help needed. Customers get personalized attention, and businesses can work faster toward customer loyalty.

Again, speaking to a real person when they have problems is a big plus for customers, but not for issues they know could be resolved in the time it takes to wait on the line for a representative.

Supply and Demand

Price optimization has taken on a bigger role than it has in the past. Mostly, data science is looking at supply and demand in real-time rather than having price fluctuations occur months after the business loses money. Having the right price can also help create more promotions for products and services, rewarding loyal customers for their shopping.

The data has to be gained from multiple channels by using price optimization tools, which focus on using data correctly in a company’s favor. The information doesn’t just look at supply and demand, but also examines locations, times, customer attitudes, competitor pricing and many other factors. All these pieces of information can be delivered in real-time so prices can be changed accordingly.

Taking the Competition

The thing about data science is that businesses are already utilizing it to their full potential and getting more customers than ever. The only way to get ahead of the competition is to at least start using the tools they’ve had at their disposal for years.

Target was one such company that took up the data helm. During 2012 and 2013, it saw a pretty sizeable dip in sales, but its online sales went up by almost 30% during the same time.

Data and Retail

When running a retail business, especially one that’s branching off into a franchise, using data is imperative. Data science and AI have become extremely important to companies both big and small.

Applying it correctly can help enterprises of any size and in every industry take things to the next level.

Even if a company is just starting out, sticking the first landing with a target audience is a fantastic way to begin the adventure and find success.

Visual Question Answering with Keras – Part 2: Making Computers Intelligent to answer from images

Making Computers Intelligent to answer from images

This is my second blog on Visual Question Answering, in the last blog, I have introduced to VQA, available datasets and some of the real-life applications of VQA. If you have not gone through then I would highly recommend you to go through it. Click here for more details about it.

In this blog post, I will walk through the implementation of VQA in Keras.

You can download the dataset from here: https://visualqa.org/index.html. All my experiments were performed with VQA v2 and I have used a very tiny subset of entire dataset i.e all samples for training and testing from the validation set.

Table of contents:

  1. Preprocessing Data
  2. Process overview for VQA
  3. Data Preprocessing – Images
  4. Data Preprocessing through the spaCy library- Questions
  5. Model Architecture
  6. Defining model parameters
  7. Evaluating the model
  8. Final Thought
  9. References

NOTE: The purpose of this blog is not to get the state-of-art performance on VQA. But the idea is to get familiar with the concept. All my experiments were performed with the validation set only.

Full code on my Github here.


1. Preprocessing Data:

If you have downloaded the dataset then the question and answers (called as annotations) are in JSON format. I have provided the code to extract the questions, annotations and other useful information in my Github repository. All extracted information is stored in .txt file format. After executing code the preprocessing directory will have the following structure.

All text files will be used for training.

 

2. Process overview for VQA:

As we have discussed in previous post visual question answering is broken down into 2 broad-spectrum i.e. vision and text.  I will represent the Neural Network approach to this problem using the Convolutional Neural Network (for image data) and Recurrent Neural Network(for text data). 

If you are not familiar with RNN (more precisely LSTM) then I would highly recommend you to go through Colah’s blog and Andrej Karpathy blog. The concepts discussed in this blogs are extensively used in my post.

The main idea is to get features for images from CNN and features for the text from RNN and finally combine them to generate the answer by passing them through some fully connected layers. The below figure shows the same idea.

 

I have used VGG-16 to extract the features from the image and LSTM layers to extract the features from questions and combining them to get the answer.

3. Data Preprocessing – Images:

Images are nothing but one of the input to our model. But as you already may know that before feeding images to the model we need to convert into the fixed-size vector.

So we need to convert every image into a fixed-size vector then it can be fed to the neural network. For this, we will use the VGG-16 pretrained model. VGG-16 model architecture is trained on millions on the Imagenet dataset to classify the image into one of 1000 classes. Here our task is not to classify the image but to get the bottleneck features from the second last layer.

Hence after removing the softmax layer, we get a 4096-dimensional vector representation (bottleneck features) for each image.

Image Source: https://www.cs.toronto.edu/~frossard/post/vgg16/

 

For the VQA dataset, the images are from the COCO dataset and each image has unique id associated with it. All these images are passed through the VGG-16 architecture and their vector representation is stored in the “.mat” file along with id. So in actual, we need not have to implement VGG-16 architecture instead we just do look up into file with the id of the image at hand and we will get a 4096-dimensional vector representation for the image.

4. Data Preprocessing through the spaCy library- Questions:

spaCy is a free, open-source library for advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) in Python. As we have converted images into a fixed 4096-dimensional vector we also need to convert questions into a fixed-size vector representation. For installing spaCy click here

You might know that for training word embeddings in Keras we have a layer called an Embedding layer which takes a word and embeds it into a higher dimensional vector representation. But by using the spaCy library we do not have to train the get the vector representation in higher dimensions.

 

This model is actually trained on billions of tokens of the large corpus. So we just need to call the vector method of spaCy class and will get vector representation for word.

After fitting, the vector method on tokens of each question will get the 300-dimensional fixed representation for each word.

5. Model Architecture:

In our problem the input consists of two parts i.e an image vector, and a question, we cannot use the Sequential API of the Keras library. For this reason, we use the Functional API which allows us to create multiple models and finally merge models.

The below picture shows the high-level architecture idea of submodules of neural network.

After concatenating the 2 different models the summary will look like the following.

The below plot helps us to visualize neural network architecture and to understand the two types of input:

 

6. Defining model parameters:

The hyperparameters that we are going to use for our model is defined as follows:

If you know what this parameter means then you can play around it and can get better results.

Time Taken: I used the GPU on https://colab.research.google.com and hence it took me approximately 2 hours to train the model for 5 epochs. However, if you train it on a PC without GPU, it could take more time depending on the configuration of your machine.

7. Evaluating the model:

Since I have used the very small dataset for performing these experiments I am not able to get very good accuracy. The below code will calculate the accuracy of the model.

 

Since I have trained a model multiple times with different parameters you will not get the same accuracy as me. If you want you can directly download mode.h5 file from my google drive.

 

8. Final Thoughts:

One of the interesting thing about VQA is that it a completely new field. So there is absolutely no end to what you can do to solve this problem. Below are some tips while replicating the code.

  1. Start with a very small subset of data: When you start implementing I suggest you start with a very small amount of data. Because once you are ready with the whole setup then you can scale it any time.
  2. Understand the code: Understanding code line by line is very much helpful to match your theoretical knowledge. So for that, I suggest you can take very few samples(maybe 20 or less) and run a small chunk (2 to 3 lines) of code to get the functionality of each part.
  3. Be patient: One of the mistakes that I did while starting with this project was to do everything at one go. If you get some error while replicating code spend 4 to 5 days harder on that. Even after that if you won’t able to solve, I would suggest you resume after a break of 1 or 2 days. 

VQA is the intersection of NLP and CV and hopefully, this project will give you a better understanding (more precisely practically) with most of the deep learning concepts.

If you want to improve the performance of the model below are few tips you can try:

  1. Use larger datasets
  2. Try Building more complex models like Attention, etc
  3. Try using other pre-trained word embeddings like Glove 
  4. Try using a different architecture 
  5. Do more hyperparameter tuning

The list is endless and it goes on.

In the blog, I have not provided the complete code you can get it from my Github repository.

9. References:

  1. https://blog.floydhub.com/asking-questions-to-images-with-deep-learning/
  2. https://tryolabs.com/blog/2018/03/01/introduction-to-visual-question-answering/
  3. https://github.com/sominwadhwa/vqamd_floyd

6 Important Reasons for the Java Experts to learn Hadoop Skills

You must be well aware of the fact that Java and Hadoop Skills are in high demand these days. Gone are the days when advancement work moved around Java and social database. Today organizations are managing big information. It is genuinely big. From gigabytes to petabytes in size and social databases are exceptionally restricted to store it. Additionally, organizations are progressively outsourcing the Java development jobs to different groups who are as of now having big data experts.

Ever wondered what your future would have in store for you if you possess Hadoop as well as Java skills? No? Let us take a look. Today we shall discuss the point that why is it preferable for Java Developers to learn Hadoop.

Hadoop is the Future Java-based Framework that Leads the Industry

Data analysis is the current marketing strategy that the companies are adopting these days. What’s more, Hadoop is to process and comprehend all the Big Data that is generated all the time. As a rule, Hadoop is broadly utilized by practically all organizations from big and small and in practically all business spaces. It is an open-source stage where Java owes a noteworthy segment of its success

The processing channel of Hadoop, which is MapReduce, is written in Java. Thus, a Hadoop engineer needs to compose MapReduce contents in Java for Big data analysis. Notwithstanding that, HDFS, which is the record arrangement of Hadoop, is additionally Java-based programming language at its core. Along these lines, a Hadoop developer needs to compose documents from local framework to HDFS through deployment, which likewise includes Java programming.

Learn Hadoop: It is More Comfortable for a Java Developer

Hadoop is more of an environment than a standalone innovation. Also, Hadoop is a Java-based innovation. Regardless of whether it is Hadoop 1 which was about HDFS and MapReduce or Hadoop2 biological system that spreads HDFS, Spark, Yarn, MapReduce, Tez, Flink, Giraph, Storm, JVM is the base for all. Indeed, even a portion of the broadly utilized programming languages utilized in a portion of the Hadoop biological system segments like Spark is JVM based. The run of the mill models is Scala and Clojure.

Consequently, if you have a Java foundation, understanding Hadoop is progressively easier for you. Also, here, a Hadoop engineer needs Java programming information to work in MapReduce or Spark structure. Thus, if you are as of now a Java designer with a logical twist of the brain, you are one stage ahead to turn into a Hadoop developer.

IT Industry is looking for Professionals with Java and Hadoop Skills

If you pursue the expected set of responsibilities and range of abilities required for a Hadoop designer in places of work, wherever you will watch the reference of Java. As Hadoop needs solid Java foundation, from this time forward associations are searching for Java designers as the best substitution for Hadoop engineers. It is savvy asset usage for organizations as they don’t have to prepare Java for new recruits to learn Hadoop for tasks.

Nonetheless, the accessible market asset for Hadoop is less. Therefore, there is a noteworthy possibility for Java designers in the Hadoop occupation field. Henceforth, as a Java designer, on the off chance that you are not yet arrived up in your fantasy organization, learning Hadoop, will without a doubt help you to discover the chance to one of your top picks.

Combined Java and Hadoop Skills Means Better Pay Packages

You will be progressively keen on learning Hadoop on the off chance that you investigate Gartner report on big information industry. According to the report, the Big Data industry has just come to the $50 billion points. Additionally, over 64% of the main 720 organizations worldwide are prepared to put resources into big information innovation. Notwithstanding that when you are a mix of a Java and Hadoop engineer, you can appreciate 250% pay climb with a normal yearly compensation of $150,000.It is about the yearly pay of a senior Hadoop developer.

Besides, when you change to Big Data Hadoop, it very well may be useful to improve the nature of work. You will manage unpredictable and greater tasks. It does not just give you a better extension to demonstrate your expertise yet, in addition, to set up yourself as a profitable asset who can have any kind of effect.

Adapting Big Data Hadoop can be exceptionally advantageous because it will assist you in dealing with greater, complex activities a lot simpler and convey preferable yield over your associates. To be considered for examinations, you should be somebody who can have any kind of effect in the group, and that is the thing that Hadoop lets you be.

Learning Hadoop will open New Opportunities to Other Lucrative Fields

Big data is only not going to learn Hadoop. When you are in Big information space, you have sufficient chance to jump other Java and Hadoop engineer. There are different exceedingly requesting zones in big information like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Data Science. You can utilize your Java and Hadoop engineer expertise as a springboard to take your vocation to the following level. In any case, the move will give you the best outcome once you move from Java to Hadoop and increase fundamental working knowledge.

Java with Hadoop opens new skylines of occupation jobs, for example, data scientist, data analyst business intelligence analyst, DBA, etc.

Premier organizations prefer Hadoop Developers with Java skills

Throughout the years the Internet has been the greatest driver of information, and the new data produced in 2012 remained at 2500 Exabyte. The computerized world developed by 62% a year ago to 800K petabytes and will keep on developing to the tune of 1.2 zeta bytes during the present year. Gartner gauges the market of Hadoop Ecosystem to $77 million and predicts it will come to the $813 million marks by 2016.

A review of LinkedIn profiles referencing Hadoop as their abilities uncovered that just about 17000 individuals are working in Companies like Cisco, HP, TCS, Oracle, Amazon, Yahoo, and Facebook, and so on. Aside from this Java proficient who learn Hadoop can begin their vocations with numerous new businesses like Platfora, Alpine information labs, Trifacta, Datatorrent, and so forth.

Conclusion

You can see that combining your Java skills with Hadoop skills can open the doors of several new opportunities for you. You can get better remuneration for your efforts, and you will always be in high demand. It is high time to learn Hadoop online now if you are a java developer.