## Matrix search: Finding the blocks of neighboring fields in a matrix with Python

In this article we will look at a solution in python to the following grid search task:

### Input data

For the ease of the explanation, we will be looking at a simple 3×4 matrix with elements of three different kinds, 0, 1 and 2 (see above). To test the code, we will simulate data to achieve different matrix sizes and a varied number of element types. It will also allow testing edge cases like, where all elements are the same or all elements are different.

To simulate some test data for later, we can use the numpy randint() method:

```import numpy as np
matrix = [[0,0,1,1], [0,1,2,2], [0,1,1,2]]

matrix_test1 = np.random.randint(3, size = (5,5))
matrix_test2 = np.random.randint(5, size = (10,15))```

### The code

```def find_blocks(matrix):
visited = []
block_list = []
for x in range(len(matrix)):
for y in range(len(matrix[0])):
if (x, y) not in visited:
field_count, visited = explore_block(x, y, visited)
block_list.append(field_count)
return print('biggest block: {0}, number of blocks: {1}'
.format(max(block_list), len(block_list)))

def explore_block(x, y, visited):
queue = {(x,y)}
field_count = 1
while queue:
x,y = queue.pop()
visited.append((x,y))
if x+1<len(matrix) and (x+1,y) not in visited and (x+1,y) not in queue:
if matrix[x+1][y] == matrix[x][y]:
field_count += 1
if x-1>=0 and (x-1,y) not in visited and (x-1,y) not in queue:
if matrix[x-1][y] == matrix[x][y]:
field_count += 1
if y-1>=0 and (x,y-1) not in visited and (x,y-1) not in queue:
if matrix[x][y-1] == matrix[x][y]:
field_count += 1
if y+1<len(matrix[0]) and (x,y+1) not in visited and (x,y+1) not in queue:
if matrix[x][y+1] == matrix[x][y]:
field_count += 1
return field_count, visited```

### How the code works

In summary, the algorithm loops through all fields of the matrix looking for unseen fields that will serve as a starting point for a local exploration of each block of color – the find_blocks() function. The local exploration is done by looking at the neighboring fields and if they are within the same kind, moving to them to explore further fields – the explore_block() function. The fields that have already been seen and counted are stored in the visited list.

find_blocks() function:

1. Finds a starting point of a new block
2. Runs a the explore_block() function for local exploration of the block
3. Appends the size of the explored block
4. Updates the list of visited points
5. Returns the result, once all fields of the matrix have been visited.

explore_block() function:

1. Takes the coordinates of the starting field for a new block and the list of visited points
2. Creates the queue set with the starting point
3. Sets the size of the current block (field_count) to 1
4. Starts a while loop that is executed for as long as the queue is not empty
1. Takes an element of the queue and uses its coordinates as the current location for further exploration
2. Adds the current field to the visited list
3. Explores the neighboring fields and if they belong to the same block, they are added to the queue
4. The fields are taken off the queue for further exploration one by one until the queue is empty
5. Returns the field_count of the explored block and the updated list of visited fields

### Execute the function

```find_blocks(matrix)
```

The returned result is biggest block: 4, number of blocks: 4.

Run the test matrices:

```find_blocks(matrix_test1)
find_blocks(matrix_test2)
```

### Visualization

The matrices for the article were visualized with the seaborn heatmap() method.

```import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# use annot=False for a matrix without the number labels
sns.heatmap(matrix, annot=True, center = 0, linewidths=.5, cmap = "viridis",
xticklabels=False, yticklabels=False, cbar=False, square=True)
plt.show()```

## Interview – Knowledge Graphs and Semantic Technologies

“It’s incredibly empowering when data that is clear and understood – what we call ‘beautiful data’ – is available to the data workforce.”

Juan F. Sequeda is co-founder of Capsenta, a spin-off from his research, and Senior Director of Capsenta Labs. He is an expert on knowledge graphs, semantic web, semantic & graph data management and (ontology-based) data integration. In this interview Juan lets us know how SMEs can create value from data, what makes the Knowledge Graph so important and why CDOs and CIOs should use semantic technologies.

Data Science Blog: If you had to name five things that apply to SMEs as well as enterprises as they are on their journey through digital transformation: What are the most important steps to take in order to create value from data?

I would state four things:

1. Focus on the business problem that needs to be solved instead of the technology.
2. Getting value out of your data is a social-technical problem. Not everything can be solved by technology and automation. It is crucial to understand the social/human aspect of the problems.
3. Avoid boiling the ocean. Be agile and iterate.
4. Recall that it’s a marathon, not a sprint. Hence why you shouldn’t focus on boiling the ocean.

Data Science Blog: You help companies to make their company data meaningfully and thus increase their value. The magic word is the knowledge graph. What exactly is a Knowledge Graph?

Let’s recall that the term “knowledge graph”, that is being actively used today, was coined by Google in a 2012 blogpost. From an industry point of view, it’s a term that represents data integration, where not just entities but also relationships are first class citizens. In other words, it’s data integration based on graphs. That is why you see graph database companies use the term knowledge graph instead of data integration.

In the academic circle, there is a “debate” on what the term “knowledge graph” means. As academics, it’s clear that we should always strive to have well defined terms. Nevertheless, I find it ironic that academics are spending time debating on the definition of a term that appeared in a (marketing) blog post 7 years ago! I agree with Simeon Warner on this: “I care about putting more knowledge in my graph, instead of defining what is a knowledge graph”.

Whatever definition prevails, it should be open and inclusive.

On a final note, it is paramount that we remember our history in order to avoid reinventing the wheel. There is over half a century of research results that has led us to what we are calling Knowledge Graphs today. If you are interested, please check out our upcoming ISWC 2019 tutorial “Knowledge Graphs: How did we get here? A Half Day Tutorial on the History of Knowledge Graph’s Main Ideas“.

Data Science Blog: Speaking of Knowledge Graphs: According to SEMANTiCS 2019 Research and Innovation Chair Philippe Cudre-Mauroux the next generation of knowledge graphs will capture more detailed information. Towards which directions are you steering with gra.fo?

Gra.fo is a knowledge graph schema (i.e ontology) collaborative modeling tool combined with google doc style features such as real-time collaboration, comments, history and search.

Designing a knowledge graph schema is just the first step. You have to do something with it! The next step is to map the knowledge graph schema to underlying data sources in order to integrate data.

We are driving Gra.fo to also be a mapping management system. We recently released our first mapping features. You now have the ability to import existing R2RML mapping. The next step will be to create the mappings between relational databases and the schema all within Gra.fo. Furthermore, we will extend to support mappings from different types of sources.

Finally, there are so many features that our users are requesting. We are working on those and will also offer an API in order to empower users to develop their own apps and features.

Data Science Blog: At Capsenta, you are changing the way enterprises model, govern and integrate data. Put in brief, how can you explain the benefits of using semantic technologies and knowledge technologies to a CDO or CIO? Which clients could you serve and how did you help them?

Business users need to answer critical business questions quickly and accurately. However, the frequent bottleneck is the lack of understanding of the large and complex enterprise databases. Additionally, the IT experts who do understand are not always available. The ultimate goal is to empower business users to access the data in the way they think of their domain.

This is where Knowledge Graphs come into play.

At Capsenta, we use our Knowledge Graph technology to bridge this conceptualization gap between the complex and inscrutable data sources and the business intelligence and data analytic tools that domain experts use to answer critical business questions. Our goal is to deliver beautiful data so the business users and data scientist can run with the data.

We are helping large scale enterprises in e-commerce, oil & gas and life science industries to generate beautiful data.

Data Science Blog: What are reasons for which Knowledge Graphs should be part of any corporate strategy?

Graphs are very easy for people to understand and express the complex relationships between concepts. Bubbles and lines between them (i.e. a graph!) is what domain experts draw on the whiteboard all the time. We have even had C-level executives look at a Knowledge Graph and immediately see how it expresses a portion of their business and even offer suggestions for additional richness. Imagine that, C-level executives participating in an ontology engineering session because they understand the graph.

This is in sharp contrast to the data itself, which is almost always very difficult to understand and overwhelming in scope. Critical business value is available in a subset of this data. A Knowledge Graph bridges the conceptual gap between a critical portion of the inscrutable data itself and the business user’s view of their world.

It’s incredibly empowering when data that is clear and understood – what we call “beautiful data” – is available to the data workforce.

Data Science Blog: Data-driven process analyzes require interdisciplinary knowledge. What advice would you give to a process manager who wants to familiarize her-/himself with the topic?

Domain experts/business users frequently use multiple words/phrases to mean the same thing and also a specific phrase can mean different things to different people. Also, the domain experts/business users speak a very different language than the IT database owners.

How can the business have clear, accurate answers when there’s inconsistency in what people mean and are thinking?

This is the social problem of getting everyone on the same page. We’ve seen Knowledge Graphs dramatically help with this problem. The exercise of getting people to agree upon what they mean and encoding it in an intuitive Knowledge Graph is very powerful.

The Knowledge Graph also brings the IT stakeholders into the process by clarifying exactly what data or, typically, complex calculations of data is the actual, accurate value for each and every business concept and relationship expressed in the Knowledge Graph.

It is crucial to avoid boiling the ocean. That is why we have designed a pay-as-you-go methodology to start small and provide value as quickly and accurately as possible. Ideally, the team has available what we call a “Knowledge Engineer”. This is someone who can effectively speak with the business users/domain experts and also nerd out with the database folks.